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Dr. Andrew Rynne
Dr. Andrew Rynne

Family Physician

Exp 50 years

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Article Home Eye Problems Overview and types of Glaucoma

Overview and types of Glaucoma

Glaucoma is a condition in which there will be loss of vision. In this condition there will be damage to the optic nerve, the nerve which carries the visual sensation from the eye to the brain.


Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy leading to visual field damage characterized by progressive injury to the ganglion cells and axons of the retina.


In Glaucoma the nerve damage is caused by increased intraocular pressure. In the front part of the eye there will be clear liquid called aqueous humor. This fluid is made in the back of the eye. It opens through the channels in front of the eye in an area called anterior chamber angle. If there is any slowing or blockage in the flow of this fluid, it will cause pressure to build up in the nerve. This pressure is known as intraocular pressure.

In Glaucoma the intraocular pressure raises and it leads to damage to the various structure of eye like optic nerve.

The cause of Glaucoma is not known.

In glaucoma there is a triad of increased intraocular pressure, nerve damage and peripheral loss of vision.

It is one of the leading cause for blindness.

Risk factors of glaucoma

  • High intraocular pressure
  • Advanced age
  • Family history of glaucoma
  • Myopia
  • Diabetes
  • High blood pressure

 Types of Glaucoma

  • Open angle or chronic glaucoma: It is the most common type of glaucoma and it accounts for 90% of all glaucoma. It occurs when the meshwork of trabeculae becomes blocked and the fluid will be unable to drain the canals. The blockage will lead to raised intraocular pressure. In the fluid buildup occurs slowly.
  • Angle-closure or acute glaucoma: In this there will be narrowing of opening which is present between the cornea and iris. In this the fluid cannot get the trabecular meshwork and normal drainage channels. This narrowing results in fluid buildup and causes rise in intraocular pressure. In this fluid buildup occur very fast
  • Congenital glaucoma
  • Secondary glaucoma: It occurs as a result of injury to the eye, inflammation or tumor of eye, diabetes and in cataracts.
  • Normal tension glaucoma: In this the intraocular pressure is normal. But optic nerve damage is present.
  • Childhood glaucoma

 Diagnosis of glaucoma

  • Goniosocpy to see the angle
  • Tonometry to tests the pressure of the eye
  • Optic nerve imaging
  • Pupillary reflex response
  • Retinal examaintion
  • Slit lamp examaintion
  • Visual acuity
  • Visual field measurement