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Dr. Andrew Rynne
Dr. Andrew Rynne

Family Physician

Exp 50 years

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Article Home Women's Health Cervical cancer

Cervical cancer

Cervical cancer is the cancer affecting the cervix which is the narrowest part of the uterus

Cervical cancer is the most common cancers that affect woman’s reproductive organs. Human papilloma virus (HPV), sexually transmitted infection causes most cases of cervical cancers.

Risk factors of cervical cancers:

  • Infection with human papilloma virus.
  • Lack of regular pap tests.
  • Weakened immune system.
  • Age: It mostly occurs in woman over the age of 40.
  • Sexual history: If occurs in women who have multiple sexual partners.
  • Smoking.
  • Using birth control pills for long time.
  • Having many children.
  • Early sexual activity.


Tests and diagnosis:

  • Pap smear: In these test the cells from cervix is brushed and sent to lab to detect any abnormal cells. It can detect abnormal cells in the cervix which is called precancerous stage.
  • HPV DNA test: to know whether you are infected with the HPV.


      If the Pap smear test reveals abnormal cells the following tests are performs to confirm the diagnosis of cervical cancer.

  • Colposcopy: It is the examination of cervix using a special microscope called colposcope to examine cervix for abnormal cells.
  • Cervical biopsy: It is a procedure where a sample of unusual cells from your cervix using special tools.
  • Conization: In this cone-shaped area of cervical cells are removed. I allow examining deeper layer of cells.
  • Imaging studies like CT scan, MRI scan.

Stages of cervical cancer:

Stage 0: Also called carcinoma in situ or non invasive cancer. In this early cancer is small and confined to the surface of the cervix.

Stage 1: Cancer confined to cervix.

Stage II: Cancer involves cervix, uterus but not spread to pelvic wall or the lower portion of the vagina.

Stage III: Cancer at this stage extends beyond cervix and uterus to the pelvic wall or the lower portion of vagina.

Stage IV: Cancer has spread to nearby organs like bladder, rectum or to the other areas of the body.


Treatment for non invasive cancer:

  • Cone biopsy (Conization).
  • Laser surgery.
  • Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP).
  • Cryosurgery.
  • Hysterectomy (removal of uterus).


Treatment of invasive cancer:


  • Reduce the risk of cervical cancer by taking measures to prevent HPV infection. HPV spread through skin to skin contact with any infected part of the body and not just by intercourse. Use a condom every time.
  • Delay intercourse.
  • Have fewer sexual partners.
  • Avoid smoking.
  • HPV vaccination.
  • Have routine Pap test.