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Dr. Andrew Rynne
Dr. Andrew Rynne

Family Physician

Exp 50 years

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Article Home Adult and Senior Health Kidney Stones

Kidney Stones

Kidney stones are deposits of small, hard, non-metallic minerals due to concentration of minerals and clubbing up of them present in the urine which starts up with excruciating pain in lower back or under the ribs and radiating to thighs or lower abdomen and trouble in voiding urine



  • Family history of kidney stones are more likely to develop kidney stones
  • Inherited metabolic disorders like cystinuria, hypercalciuria, hyperuricosuria and hyperoxaluria
  • Infections: Urinary tract infections, kidney infection, prostatitis etc
  • Metabollic disorders: Hyperparathyroidism, Cushing’s syndrome, hyperadrenalism
  • People with problems metabolizing a variety of chemicals including cystine , oxalate, , and uric acid
  • There are regional "stone belts," with people living in the hot climate, since these people can get dehydrated, and their urine becomes more concentrated, allowing chemicals to come in closer contact and clumping of a stone
  • The foods high in calcium may increase the risk in susceptible individuals
  • Medicines such as diuretics and those who consume excess calcium-containing antacids can increase the amount of calcium in their urine and increase their risk of forming stones
  • Patients with HIV who take the medication indinavir can form indinavir stones


  • Pain in the side, back and below the ribs
  • Radiating pain from the side and back to the lower abdomen and groin
  • Bloody, cloudy or foul-smelling urine
  • Pain during urination
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Feeling or urge to urinate always
  • Fever and chills if an infection is present

Tests and diagnosis:

  • Computerized tomography (CT) scans
  • Abdominal X-ray: An abdominal X-ray can visualize most kidney stones and can help in identifying changes in the size of a stone over time.
  • Ultrasound
  • Intravenous pyelography
  • Complete blood count and urine analysis


  • Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) using shock waves to break the stones into tiny pieces that are then passed in your urine using an X-ray or ultrasound to determine the position of the stone   
  • Percutaneous nephrolithotomy In cases of large stones the removal is made through small incision in your back using an instrument called a nephroscope.
  • Ureteroscopic stone removal. This procedure may be used to remove a stone lodged in a ureter.
  • Parathyroid surgery. Some calcium stones are caused by overactive parathyroid glands secreting more of calcium