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Dr. Andrew Rynne
Dr. Andrew Rynne

Family Physician

Exp 50 years

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Article Home Adult and Senior Health Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

It affects the ability of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord to communicate with each other. It is characterized by presence of scars, plaques or lesions in the white matter of the brain.


Multiple sclerosis is a disseminated sclerosis. It is an autoimmune disease in which the body’s immune response attack’s the patient’s central nervous system. It is a nervous system disease which affects the brain and spinal cord. It is an inflammatory, degenerative, chronic disorder which affects the brain and the spinal cord.

The inflammatory response may be triggered by genetic, environmental and viral factors that initiate demyelination.

Demyelination occurs due to abnormal immune system response which causes a type of white blood cell to attack myelin.

Signs and symptoms of multiple sclerosis

  • Fatigue
  • Balance and equilibrium abnormalities like dizziness, vertigo, uncoordinated movements, tremors
  • Mood swings
  • Impaired memory
  • Impairment in reasoning, concentration
  • Cognitive impairment
  • Depression
  • Unstable mood
  • Nystagmus
  • Optic neuritis
  • Diploplia
  • Dysarthria
  • Dysphagia
  • Weakness
  • Spasms
  • Ataxia
  • Pain
  • Hypoesthesias
  • Pareasthesias
  • Bowel incontinence
  • Diarrhea or constipation
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Urinary frequency or retention
  • Visual disturbances
  • Trouble with coordination and balance
  • Pins and needles
  • Thinking and memory problems.

Tests and diagnosis

  • Physical and neurological examination
  • Blood tests
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Spinal tap
  • Neurological tests

Complications of multiple sclerosis

  • Muscle stiffness or spasms
  • Paralysis
  • Bladder, bowel or sexual dysfunctions
  • Mental changes like forgetfulness or difficulties with concentration
  • Depression
  • Epilepsy

Treatment of multiple sclerosis

  • Corticosteroids
  • Interferons
  • Glatiramer
  • Natalizumah
  • Mitoxantrone