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Dr. Andrew Rynne
Dr. Andrew Rynne

Family Physician

Exp 50 years

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Article Home Eye Problems Treatment of glaucoma

Treatment of glaucoma

The treatment of glaucoma is mainly to decrease the intraocular pressure by improving the aqueous flow, decreasing the production of aqueous. Glaucoma cannot be cured. Bu the treatment helps to prevent the visual loss.


Treatment of Glaucoma

  • Eye drops
  • Oral medications
  • Neuroprotective drugs
  • Surgery

 Eye drops

There are various eye drops are used to treat glaucoma

Beta blockers: These will decrease the formation of aqueous humor. The drugs like levobunolol, timolol, betaxolol and metipranolol are some of the medications used. The adverse effects of these medications are difficulty in breathing, slowed pulse, loss of hair, low blood pressure, impotence, weakness, fatigue, depression and memory loss.

Alpha-agonist: This will decrease the production of aqueous humor and it increases the drainage. Examples: Apraclonidine, brimonidine. The side effects of these drugs are fatigue, dizziness, and itchiness of eye, swelling of eyes, dry mouth and allergic reactions.

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: It will reduce the production of aqueous humor. Examples dorzolamide, brinzolamide. The side effects of these medications are increased frequency of urination, tingling sensation in the fingers and toes. These medications should not be used if the patient has allergy to sulfa drugs.

Prostaglandin like compounds: These medications increase the outflow of aqueous humor. Examples latanoprost, bimatoprost, travoprost. The side effects of this drug are reddening of eyes, stinging of eyes, darkening of eyes, changes in the eye lid pigment, blurring of vision and swelling of the retina.

Miotic or cholinergic agents: These will increase the outflow the aqueous humor. Examples are pilocarpine, carbachol. The side effects of this medication are pain around the eye, brow ache, blurring of vision, dimnision of vision, nearsightedness, allergic reactions, stuffy nose, sweating, increased salivation and other digestive problems.

Epinephrine compounds like dipivefrin also increase the aqueous humor. The adverse effects redness of eyes, allergic reactions, palpitations, increased blood pressure, headache and anxiety.

Oral medications

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors like acetazolamide like diamox and methazolamide are used for glaucoma.

Neuroprotective drugs

Certain drugs like brimonidine and Memantine may be used to protect the optic nerve.


  • Laser surgery: Trabeculoplasty can be used.
  • Filtering surgery like trabeculectomy is performed.
  • Drainage implant surgery