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Dr. Andrew Rynne
Dr. Andrew Rynne

Family Physician

Exp 50 years

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Article Home Adult and Senior Health Congenital Heart Disease

Congenital Heart Disease

Congenital heart disease is the defect in structure of the heart and great vessels of the new born. These are the most common birth defects and it is the main leading cause of birth defect deaths in the infants.


Causes of congenital heart disease

  • Genetic causes like chromosomal abnormalities like trisomies 21, 13 and trisomy 18.
  • Environmental factors like maternal infections like rubella
  • Drugs like alcohol, hydantoin, lithium, thalidomide
  • Maternal illness like diabetes mellitus, phenylketonuria, systemic lupus erythematous.

Types of congenital heart disease

  • Hypoplastic heart disease
  • Obstructive heart disease
  • Septal defects
  • Cyanotic heart disease
  • Other defects like Ebstein’s anamoly, Brugada syndrome, Marfan syndrome, DigGeorge syndrome

Other method of classification

  • Cyanotic heart disease
  • Acyanotic or non cyanotic heart disease

Cyanotic heart disease

Acyanotic heart disease

Tetrology of Fallot

Ventricular septal defect

Transposition of the great vessels

Atrial septal defect

Tricuspid atresia

Patent ductus arteriosus

Total anomalous pulmonary venous return

Aortic stenosis

Truncus arteriosus

Coarctation of aorta

Hypoplastic right  and left heart

Pulmonary stenosis

Ebstein’s anamoly

Atrioventricular canal or endocardial cushion defect


Symptoms and signs

  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain
  • Syncope
  • Sweating
  • Cyanosis
  • Respiratory infections
  • Poor growth
  • Poor development of limbs
  • Poor development of muscles
  • Fluid buildup in the lungs
  • Swelling of legs, feet and ankles
  • Heart murmurs

Treatment of congenital heart disease

  • Medications like diuretics, digoxin.
  • Surgical procedures