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Dr. Andrew Rynne
Dr. Andrew Rynne

Family Physician

Exp 50 years

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Article Home Adult and Senior Health Insulin action and side effects

Insulin action and side effects

Insulin is a hormone that has extensive effects various body functions. Insulin acts on liver, muscle, and fat tissue to take up glucose from the blood, storing it as glycogen in the liver and muscle, and stopping use of fats as energy source.



Insulin structure varies slightly btw species of animal. Porcine (pig) insulin is very close to the human version. Bovine insulin produces more allergic reactions. Bovine insulin differs from human in only three amino acids residues, and porcine insulin in one.

Effects of insulin on cells

  • Increases the glycogen synthesis
  • Increases fatty acid synthesis
  • Increased esterification of fatty acids
  • Decreases the breakdown of proteins
  • Decreases the breakdown of fat cells
  • Decreases the production of glucose from non sugar substrates
  • Increases the secretion of hydrochloric aced in stomach
  • Increases the amino acid uptake

Synthesis of insulin

Insulin is synthesized in the pancreas with in beta cells (beta cells) of the islets of langerhans.

In beta cells, insulin is synthesized from the proinsulin precursor molecule by the action of prohormone convertases (PC1 and PC2).

Uses of insulin 

Side effects of insulin  

  • Hypoglycemia
  • Redness and itchiness at the site of injection
  • Allergic reactions: increased pulse rate, hypotension, rapid and hurried respiration




 How to store insulin  


  • If whole bottle of insulin to be used within 30 days
  • Keep the bottle of insulin at room temperature
  • If you don’t use a whole bottle within 30 days then you should store it in the refrigerator all the time
  • Keep at least one extra bottle of insulin in the refrigerator.