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Dr. Andrew Rynne
Dr. Andrew Rynne

Family Physician

Exp 50 years

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Article Home Dentistry Swollen gums

Swollen gums

Gums are thin continuous covering around the teeth. It can become thick swollen red mass. It leads to destruction of healthy teeth and the supporting bone.


  • Infection of gingiva leading to a  plaque formation.
  • In pregnancy and puberty. Due to certain normal condition such as pregnancy and puberty, there is swelling of the gingiva seen. This swelling is an abnormal response to the normal bacteria present in the mouth. The abnormal response is a result of hormonal changes or variation seen during the above-mentioned conditions.
  • Certain disease or deficiency condition may also result in swollen gingiva
  • Vitamin C deficiency.
  • Leukemia                      
  • Tumors or abnormal growth on the gingiva, which may be harmless or, can be cancerous.
  • Certain drugs used by the patient may result in increased size of the gingiva as a side effect like nifedipine used in epilepsy and nifedipine used in treatment of high blood pressure.


  • Pain may or may not be present.
  • Redness of the gums.
  • Soft and spongy gingiva.
  • Thickness of gingiva.
  • Bleeding of gingiva.
  • If the cause is infection then, the initial stage is indicated by the presence of bright red gingiva. As the infection progresses the color changes from red to bluish red to deep blue.
  • Swelling caused by the drugs is usually very hard and thick. The gingiva will become swollen even after treatment of the swelling. The swelling occurs only when the drug is administered for a certain period of time.


  • In case of swelling due to inflammation, good care of the   teeth and the gums by proper and timely brushing and   usage of mouth washes can reduce the swelling.
  • If collection of plaque or food debris is in large amount are firmly stuck to the teeth.
  •  then dentist help is required to remove the deposits by a process called scaling can be
  •  If swelling is due to drugs, stoppage of the drug  causes a reduction of swelling.
  • In case of swelling due to general illness correction of the health problem results in an improvement.
  • If swelling is a tumor then surgical removal is recommended.
  • Incase if thick fibrous growth of gingiva a treatment called gingevectomy.