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Dr. Andrew Rynne
Dr. Andrew Rynne

Family Physician

Exp 50 years

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Article Home First Aid and Emergency CPR


CPR is an emergency medical procedure for patient with cardiac arrest. It involves physical interventions to create artificial circulation through chest compressions and also involves the rescuer exhaling in to the patient to inflate the lungs and pass oxygen in to the blood which is called artificial respiration.


CPR is a life saving technique used in many emergencies like heart attack or near drowning in whom breathing or heartbeat has stopped.

CPR involves two elements: Chest compressions with mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing.

CPR helps to maintain oxygenated blood to brain and heart, hence delaying the tissue death and helps to extend the brief window for successful resuscitation without permanent brain damage.

CPR is continued in the presence of advanced life support until the patient regains a heart beat called return of spontaneous circulation or ‘ROSC’ or is declared dead.

CPR involves ABCs

ABC: Airway, breathing, circulation


Patient is put on his or her back on a firm surface.

Kneel next to person’s neck and shoulder

Person’s airway is opened using head-tilt or chin lift technique. Place your palm on the person’s forehead and tilt the head back. With other hand, gently lift the chin forward to open the airway.

Check for normal breathing, look for chest motion, and listen for breath sounds. If the person is not breathing begin mouth to mouth breathing.  If the patient is unconscious from heart attack, skip mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing and proceed directly with chest compressions to restore circulation.


Rescue breathing can be mouth-to-mouth breathing or mouth-to-nose breathing if the mouth is seriously injured cannot be opened.

With the airway open using head tilt or chin-lift maneuver, pinch the nostrils shut for mouth to mouth breathing and cover the person’s mouth with yours making a seal.

Give two rescue breaths. The first breath should last for one second. Watch to see if the chest rises. If it does not rise, give the second breath. If the chest does not rise, repeat the head tilt, chin-lift maneuver and give the second breath.

Begin chest compressions to restore circulation.


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Circulations: Restore blood circulation with chest compressions

Heel of one hand is kept over the center of the person’s chest between nipples. Place the other hand of the first hand. Keep the elbows straight and position he shoulders directly above the hands.

Use upper body weight and compress the chest 2 inches. Give 2 compressions per second or about 120 compressions per minute.

After 30 compressions give two rescue breaths. If the chest rises, give second rescue breath. If the chest does not breath, repeat the mouth to mouth breathing and then give the second rescue breath. If you have any person for support ask that person to give two breaths after you give 30 compressions.

If the person does not move after five cycles, apply an external defibrillator.

Continue CPR until there are signs of movement or until the emergency medical personnel take over.