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Dr. Andrew Rynne
Dr. Andrew Rynne

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Exp 50 years

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Article Home Adult and Senior Health Causes for hyperthyroidism

Causes for hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which the overactive thyroid gland produces excess of thyroid hormones which circulate in the body. Thyrotoxicosis is toxic medical condition due to excess intake of the thyroid hormones or due to excess production of thyroid hormone by thyroid gland.


Thyroid storm is also called as thyroid crisis. It is an acute medical and life threatening condition caused by excess release of thyroid hormones. It is characterized by fever, fast heart beat, high blood pressure and other abnormalities.

Causes for hyperthyroidism

  • Grave’s disease: It is an autoimmune disorder. In this disease an antibody called thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin which is similar to TSH is produced which makes the thyroid to produce excess of thyroid hormones.
  • Thyroid nodules.
  • Thyroiditis or inflammation of thyroid gland.
  • Taking too much of iodine.

  • Excess intake of thyroid hormones which are given to treat hypothyroidism

Signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism

  • nervousness or irritability
  • fatigue or muscle weakness
  • trouble sleeping
  • Proptosis
  • Weight loss even though with good appetite
  • heat intolerance
  • hand tremors
  • rapid and irregular heartbeat
  • frequent bowel movements or diarrhea
  • weight loss
  • Restlessness
  • High blood pressure
  • Itching
  • Absence of menstrual periods in women
  • Hair loss.
  • Breast development in men
  • Sweating
  • Anxiety
  • mood swings

  • goiter, which is an enlarged thyroid that may cause your neck to look swollen


  • Thyroid function tests: Shows increased T3,T4 levels.
  • Thyroid stimulating hormone test: TSH reading below the normal indicates hyperthyroidism and the TSH levels above normal indicates hypothyroidism.
  • Thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin test: It is positive in Grave’s disease.
  • Radioactive iodine uptake test.

  • Thyroid scan.

Treatment of hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism can be treated by anti thyroid medications, radioiodine therapy and thyroid surgery.

Anti thyroid medications blocks the secretion of the thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland. The commonly used drugs are methimazole and propylthiouracil

Radioiodine therapy: In this radioiodine-131 is used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. It destroys the cells of the thyroid glands without affecting the other tissues of the body.

Thyroid surgery is the removal of the part or whole of thyroid gland.

Beta blockers like propranolol are given to treat the symptoms like rapid heart beating, sweating and anxiety.