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Dr. Andrew Rynne
Dr. Andrew Rynne

Family Physician

Exp 50 years

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Article Home Men's Health Semen analysis report

Semen analysis report

A semen analysis measures the amount of semen a man produces and determines the number and quality of sperm in the semen sample. Results of a semen analysis are usually available within a day. Normal values may vary from lab to lab.

Semen analysis

Semen volume


1.0–6.5 milliliters (mL) per ejaculation


An abnormally low or high semen volume is present, which may sometimes cause fertility problems.

Liquefaction time


Less than 60 minutes


An abnormally long liquefaction time is present, which may indicate an infection.

Sperm count


20–150 million sperm per milliliter (mL)

0 sperm per milliliter if the man has had a vasectomy


A very low sperm count is present, which may indicate infertility. However, a low sperm count does not always mean that a man cannot father a child. Men with sperm counts below 1 million have fathered children.

Sperm shape (morphology)


At least 70% of the sperm have normal shape and structure.


Sperm can be abnormal in several ways, such as having two heads or two tails, a short tail, a tiny head (pinhead), or a round (rather than oval) head. Abnormal sperm may be unable to move normally or to penetrate an egg. Some abnormal sperm are usually found in every normal semen sample. However, a high percentage of abnormal sperm may make it more difficult for a man to father a child.

Sperm movement (motility)


At least 60% of the sperm show normal forward movement.

At least 8 million sperm per milliliter (mL) show normal forward movement.


Sperm must be able to move forward (or "swim") through cervical mucus to reach an egg. A high percentage of sperm that cannot swim properly may impair a man's ability to father a child.

Semen pH


Semen pH of 7.1–8.0


An abnormally high or low semen pH can kill sperm or affect their ability to move or to penetrate an egg.

White blood cells


No white blood cells or bacteria are detected.


Bacteria or a large number of white blood cells are present, which may indicate an infection.

Fructose level


300 milligrams (mg) of fructose per 100 milliliters (mL) of ejaculate


The absence of fructose in the semen may indicate that the man was born without seminal vesicles or has blockage of the seminal vesicles

Certain conditions may be associated with a low or absent sperm count. These conditions include orchitis, varicocele, Klinefelter syndrome, radiation treatment to the testicles, or diseases that can cause shrinking (atrophy) of the testicles (such as mumps).


If a low sperm count or a high percentage of sperm abnormalities are found, further testing may be done. Other tests may include measuring hormones, such as testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), or prolactin. A small sample (biopsy) of the testicles may be needed for further evaluation if the sperm count or motility is extremely low.