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Dr. Andrew Rynne
Dr. Andrew Rynne

Family Physician

Exp 50 years

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Article Home Men's Health Male infertility

Male infertility

Male infertility refers to infertility in male humans. Male infertility is involved in a sexually paired couple's inability to conceive in a significant number of cases, with estimates ranging from 40-50%


Various male fertility disorders:

  • Azoospermia
  • Presence of Antibodies
  • Klinefelter's Syndrome
  • Hormone Disorders
  • Bacterial Infection.

Prestesticular causes of infertility

Testicular causes of infertility:

  • Chromosomal abnormalities (Klinefelter's syndrome, XX disorder (sex reversal syndrome), XYY syndrome).
  • Noonan's syndrome (male Turner's syndrome).
  • Myotonic dystrophy.
  • Bilateral anorchia (vanishing testes syndrome)
  • Sertoli-cell-only syndrome (germinal cell aplasia)
  • Gonadotoxins (drugs, radiation)
  • Orchitis
  • Trauma
  • Systemic disease (renal failure, hepatic disease, sickle cell disease).
  • Defective androgen synthesis or action
  • Varicocele
  • Cryptorchidism

Post testicular causes of male infertility:

  • Disorders of sperm transport
  • Congenital disorders
  • Acquired disorders
  • Functional disorders
  • Disorders of sperm structure
  • Congenital defects of the sperm tail
  • Maturation defects.
  • Immunological defects.
  • Infections.
  • Sexual dysfunction.


  • Semen analysis.
  • Ultrsound scan.
  • Chromosomal studies.
  • Hormonal studies.
  • Immunological studies.
  • Sperm Penetration Assays.

Prevention of male infertility:

  • Avoiding smoking as it damages sperm DNA
  • Avoiding drugs and medications known to cause fertility problems, like steroids and some antifungal medications.
  • Avoiding excessive exercise.
  • Avoiding exposure to environmental hazards such as pesticides and heavy metals such as lead, mercury and cadmium.
  • Avoiding frequent hot baths or use of hot tubs.
  • Avoiding tight underwear or pants.
  • Eating a diet with adequate folic acid, vitamin C, zinc, calcium, magnesium, selenium, iron loaded food.
  • Getting early treatment for sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Having regular physical examinations to detect early signs of infections or abnormalities.
  • Keeping diseases, such as diabetes and hypothyroidism, under control.
  • Practicing safer sex to avoid sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Taking a lycopene supplement.
  • Wearing protection over the scrotum during athletic activities.