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Dr. Andrew Rynne
Dr. Andrew Rynne

Family Physician

Exp 50 years

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Article Home Women's Health Female sex hormones

Female sex hormones

There are various hormones secreted by ovaries. These are steroids derived from cholesterol. These include estrogens, progesterone, testosterone and androstenidione. The most important female sex hormones are estrogens and progesterone.

Female sex hormones


They are the primary female sex hormones secreted by ovaries. They are also secreted by adrenal cortex.

Synthetic estrogens are available for the various use of gynecological disorders.

Actions of estrogens

  • Feminization and secondary sexual characteristics: The texture of female hairs and skin and shape of the female form is influenced by estrogen.
  • It helps in growth and development of female organs.
  • It increases blood supply to the female hormones.
  • It increases the size of the breast. It increases the blood supply to the breasts.
  • It de creases levels of FSH, LH and thyrotrophic hormones.
  • It can be used to inhibit ovulation and production of milk in puerperal patient.
  • It stimulates Luteinizing hormone.
  • It influences calcification of bone and the close of epiphysis in the adolescent.
  • It causes water and sodium retention.
  • It controls blood cholesterol level.


It is mainly secreted by corpus luteum.

Actions of progesterones

  • It helps in continuation of pregnancy.
  • It increases the cells of uterus, tubes, and cervix.
  • It increases the size of breast.
  • It inhibits the production of follicle stimulating hormones.
  • It suppresses ovulation.
  • It causes water and sodium retention and is responsible for premenstrual tension and weight gain.
  • It relaxes uterine smooth muscles.
  • It has anabolic effects and causes weight gain.
  • It increases the body temperature.
  • When give in pregnancy it causes virilisation of female fetus since it is metabolized to testosterone